Green Revolution: What is the green revolution? A detailed discussion about when the green revolution took place – etc.
Table of Contents
What is the green revolution?
Green Revolution : India’s agricultural system underwent a radical change in the post-independence 1960s. Instead of the traditional farming method, the new farming method which is developed with the help of modern technology, fertilizers, and high-yielding seeds is called Green Revolution.
The Green Revolution started in 1960-61 with the Intensive Agricultural District Program (IADP) and High-Yielding Varieties Program (HYVP) led by Norman Borlaug.
As a result of the Green Revolution in 1966 in Punjab, Haryana, Dichi Rajasthan, and Laksha state in western Uttar Pradesh, using high-yielding seeds like Sonaba 64, Kalap, etc. it became possible to grow crops twice or thrice a year.
Benefits of the Green Revolution
The following are the benefits of the green revolution:
Basically, the production of the two main food grains, paddy, and wheat increased greatly. Rice production was 36 million tons in 1000. In 2011-12 it increased to 105: 31 million tonnes. However, in the case of the green revolution, the production of crops like maize, sand, wheat, jowar did not increase much. High-yielding or HYV seeds are used in paddy and wheat.
As a result of the green revolution, the production of food grains increased, but various commercial crops such as cotton, jute, tea, Kathi, and oilseeds, earlier production.
After the Green Revolution, India became largely self-sufficient in food grain production. In 1960-61, 16% of India’s foodgrain requirement had to be imported. But in 2008-09 only 4% of food grains had to be imported.
As a result of the green revolution, many people have got new employment. Income is increasing. The productivity of agricultural crops has increased by using new technologies. After the 1960s, the production of rice, maize, and potatoes also increased in addition to the increase in wheat production under the influence of the Green Revolution. Besides, many people get work in the agricultural field throughout the year due to the introduction of multiple cropping systems.
Technology has indirectly created a link between agriculture and industry as modern agricultural systems have become prevalent. There is no shortage of raw materials for agro-based industries to maintain the production of agricultural crops, as a result, many agro-based industries have developed. As a result, new employment has been created in the industrial sector as well.
Disadvantages of the Green Revolution
Along with the advantages of the green revolution, there are several disadvantages or weaknesses discussed below –
This modern agricultural system is basically a market-based agricultural system. The price of the crop is fixed on the market rate. The production system is not profitable everywhere due to variations in banger prices.
India’s agricultural system is still dependent on monsoons. Major rivers in India flood every year due to a lack of irrigation system improvement. Again, high-yielding seeds require a lot of soil. Therefore, it is not possible to produce this type of crop in other times than the rainy season, as a result, two or three crops are not available everywhere in the country.
In order to enjoy the capital of the green revolution, it is absolutely necessary to have the slogan of capital. Basically ADP and HYVP – this plan starts in verse 3. As a result, a lot of capital is needed to maintain the supply of seeds, fertilizers, pesticides, and water. Due to various problems in the Indian banking system, lower and middle-class farmers cannot collect this huge amount of money. Again, out of 81 million farmers in India, only 4% are large-scale farmers. Therefore, the benefits of the green revolution are not seen everywhere in the country.
A large part of India’s population is farmers. But because they don’t have their own land, they have to cultivate as sharecroppers or with seeds. As a result, there is no supply of capital, which hampers crop production. It cannot provide the necessary raw materials even in the field of education. Therefore, the production system is disrupted due to a lack of raw materials in agro-based industries.
Haryana, Punjab, and West Uttar Pradesh, the districts where the Green Revolution took place, changed the social and economic quality of life in rural areas. Prosperous peasants in the villages who adopted the method of the Buddh revolution became more prosperous. The quality of social life improves. There is a financial disparity between the financially developed and the underdeveloped peasant class in the village.
The modern technology used in agriculture as a result of the Green Revolution required properly skilled farm workers. There is a dire shortage of suitably skilled and educated workers in India.
Synthetic chemical fertilizers are used to make the green revolution a success. In the first phase, production also increases. But after so many years many problems have arisen in that region. Due to the use of chemical fertilizers, the fertility power of Mukti is decreasing. As a result, when the production is disrupted. In addition to this, the ecosystem of the region is also being damaged in various ways.
The way to solve all the problems that have arisen as a result of the green revolution is to introduce a proper education system to educate farmers i.e. farmers to use modern technology and develop proper irrigation systems. Improved banking business f Increasing the use of organic fertilizers instead of chemical fertilizers. By which laborers get the benefit of capital easily. Establish a proper communication system between agriculture and industry.
Second Green Revolution: The first green revolution started in the northwestern part of India in the 1900s but gradually spread throughout the country. Adopting this technology, the second green revolution took place in 2006. Mainly in Bihar, Orissa, and West Bengal as well as in the states of South India, the production of jowar, millet, paddy, and potato increased. This stage of the revolution was led by Swaminakhon.