Wet Farming, Dry Farming & Irrigation Farming: Get a complete understanding of wet agriculture and dry agriculture and irrigated agriculture in this report. There are three types of Farming –
- Wet Farming
- Dry Farming
- Irrigation Farming
Table of Contents
What is wet agriculture?
In some areas, there is no irrigation facility or it is limited. Agriculture that is done there without the help of irrigation and depends only on rainwater is called wet agriculture.
Characteristics of wet agriculture
1 In all regions where there is regular and sufficient rainfall, the soil remains moist. Therefore, irrigation is not needed for agriculture. In many cases, groundwater is also located near the surface. As a result, soil moisture is maintained.
In this case, the farmer prepares the land before the rains and starts sowing the seeds when the rains begin.
Agriculture is not practiced in these regions during the dry season.
The efficiency of the farmer in this agriculture is controlled by the environment. He mainly participates in this work to fulfill his own needs.
Capital investment is limited here due to a lack of irrigation facilities.
Yield rate and total production are low.
There is no surplus in production. As a result, there is no opportunity to export agricultural products.
In developing countries, the area of land under wet agriculture is small. This type of agriculture can be seen on the flat top of the plateau (where there is more rain), away from rivers-canals-water bodies in the plains or where there is no possibility of irrigation, on the opposite slopes of the mountains or plateaus. Paddy, jute, etc. are the main crops of this agriculture.
Location of wet agriculture: Wet agriculture is practiced in the monsoon rain regions of South and East Asia like India, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Myanmar, Indonesia, Malaysia, Ethiopia, Zambia, the southern part of Brazil, etc. h. Land ownership
What is dry agriculture?
In regions where the annual rainfall is very low (usually less than 50 cm), irrigation is not available, the agricultural system practiced in those regions is called dry farming.
Characteristics of dry farming
This type of agriculture is common in drought-prone areas. Rainfall in this agricultural region is uncertain and rainfall is low.
Sandy, loamy soil is suitable for this agriculture. Because the water-holding capacity of such soil is low.
To prevent the wastage of water, large land is divided into small parts.
The soil is first plowed deeply so that the rainwater can penetrate deep into the soil.
Efforts are made to keep the land weed free to stop the wastage of water.
However, in a dry farming system, the production cost is higher but the yield is less.
Those crops which are profitable, those which are in demand, those crops are cultivated. For example, millet, sorghum, millet, ragi, etc. are the main crops of this agricultural system.
No irrigation is used in this method.
Once a year the land is left after cultivation.
After plowing, the land is covered with straw so that the soil moisture does not decrease.
Crops that can withstand drought or require less water are cultivated.
It is a crop farming system where holdings are small, agricultural production is low.
Location of dry agriculture: Western Australia, the western part of the United States, Canada, South Africa, Central America, south-western Brazil, western Asia, the western part of India (Punjab, Rajasthan, Gujarat), the interior of southern India, etc.
What is irrigated agriculture?
When the amount of rainfall is less and uncertain than the production and demand of crops, crops are grown by irrigation, then it is called irrigated agriculture.
Characteristics of Irrigated Agriculture
Irrigation is done by adopting sources like rivers, wells, tube wells, canals, reservoirs, etc. As a result, both surface water and groundwater are used for agriculture. In this case, both labor power and pump are used.
Different crops are cultivated at different times of the year with the help of irrigation.
Crops can be produced multiple times from the same land.
The land can be cultivated throughout the year. As a result, much more capital is required in this case compared to dry and wet agriculture.
Due to the opportunity for farmers to harvest more crops, their financial condition is relatively better.
Due to excessive irrigation in this agricultural system, the soil of the delta region often becomes saline.
Different types of food grains (paddy, wheat), fiber crops (cotton), vegetables, pulses, oilseeds, etc. are cultivated according to the demand.
Location of Irrigated Agriculture: Generally, the predominance of irrigated agriculture can be observed in the river basin region. Namely, India’s Indus Gangetic Plain (Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, West Bengal, Odisha), Egypt’s Nile Basin, China’s Huangho-Yangxiang River Plain, USA’s Mississippi-Missouri River Basin, etc.
Also Read: Wheat Cultivation Method