Wheat Cultivation Method: Wheat Cultivation System, Suitable Land for Wheat Cultivation, Classification of Wheat Cultivation. Winter wheat cultivation and winter wheat cultivation. Wheat Cultivation in Bengali.
Table of Contents
Wheat Cultivation Methods
The scientific name of wheat is Triticum aestivam (Triticum aestivam). Among the different species of wheat, Triticum dicoccum, Triticum sphyroccum, and Triticum durum are the main ones. It is mainly a major crop of extensive commercial agriculture in subtropical and temperate regions. In the Northern Hemisphere 15°-65° latitude and in the Southern Hemisphere 15°-45° latitude, wheat cultivation is predominant.
Usage: Wheat is the main food grain of the world. Flour, flour, and semolina are made from wheat, and cakes, bread, and biscuits are also made with it, as well as sugar, gum, etc. Wheat straw is also used as raw material for the paper industry.
Classification of Wheat:
Classification of wheat according to time of sowing and harvesting and on the basis of morphological characteristics Classification of wheat according to time of sowing and harvesting – 1) Winter wheat 2) Basant wheat
1) Winter Wheat: Winter wheat seeds are sown at the beginning of winter. Winter wheat seeding is usually completed in November in the Northern Hemisphere and April or May in the Southern Hemisphere. The crop is harvested after the wheat ripens in summer. The subtropical and subtropical zones of the world’s mid-latitude winter climates are suitable for wheat cultivation. About 80% of the world’s wheat is of the ‘winter’ class.
Distribution of Winter Wheat Cultivation:
a) Winter wheat is grown in the United States of America in the Pedalfers soil zone and fertile grassland zone of Conesus, Missouri, Nebraska.
b) Winter wheat cultivation is practiced in Huangho Peninsula and North and North-West part of China.
c) In Japan, south of 37°N latitude, winter wheat is grown mainly along the east coast.
d) In India, wheat is grown as a sorghum. In states like Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan etc., wheat is grown mainly in winter.
e) Besides, wheat is grown as a winter crop in Argentina, New Zealand, Australia, Pakistan, and Bangladesh.
2) Spring wheat: The seeds of spring wheat are sown at the beginning of spring. At the end of the long winter, the ground is wet with ice water. As a result, the need for irrigation is reduced to a large extent. In virtually all regions of the world where snow falls in winter and the soil becomes unsuitable for cultivation, domestic wheat can be grown in late winter if other agricultural inputs are available.
Distribution of actual wheat cultivation:
(a) In the United States of America, native wheat is grown in North and South Dakota, Montana, Wyoming, etc. In particular, the Red River valley is suitable for spring wheat cultivation.
b) Western wheat is cultivated in the vast prairies of southern Canada, that is, in the plains of Manitoba, Saskatchewan, and Alberta.
c) Reversal Wheat is a spring crop in the Slap Cotton region of the Soviet Union and a large area of Siberia. Classification of wheat based on morphological characteristics: According to the context discussed, wheat is mainly of three types.
For example- 1) white wheat, 2) durum wheat, and 3) hard red wheat.
White wheat: White wheat is a soft type. This type of wheat can be cultivated in both winter and spring seasons. Its grains are big.
Durum wheat (Durum wheat): Durum wheat is a hard spring wheat. Durum wheat is grown in India, especially in the Deccan plateau region. Durum wheat pods are medium to large in size.
Hard red wheat: Hard red wheat can be cultivated in both the winter and spring seasons. A-type mer grains are small to medium in size.
Geographical environment: The following natural conditions are generally favorable for wheat production –
1) Improvement: Pure temperate or winter climate creates a suitable environment for wheat cultivation. Wheat plants require 15-20° elevation for normal growth. At least six weeks of cool weather after sowing is essential. At this time 15 22 ° C. Average improvement creates favorable conditions for cultivation.
2) Rainfall: Wheat is a crop of relatively dry regions. That is why the need for burning in wheat cultivation is limited. Average annual rainfall of 50-100 cm and 110 frost-free days should be applied at flowering time and fourth to last grain of ninth.
3) Irrigation: For good yield of wheat in irrigated areas first irrigation – three weeks after sowing, second irrigation six weeks after sowing, third irrigation Acidic country, sandy loam, silty loam soils are suitable for wheat cultivation. Dark brown soil, parol soil,
4) Soil: ‘Kurmrittika’ or Charnozem’ loam is best for wheat cultivation.
5) Land: Wheat is grown on almost level land or slightly sloping land with good drainage. On the steep slopes of the hills, wheat is grown in steps.
6) Transport: Wheat is easy to market in areas with good transport facilities.
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